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Other Stimulants and Hallucinogens

4.1 Use

General Population

  • Among Ontario adults (aged 15+), 4.3% reported a lifetime history of speed use, 4.4% ecstasy, 12.8% hallucinogens, and 1.9% salvia (Ontario sub-sample n=1,011; 2012 CADUMS).1 In the CTADS, Ontarians’ lifetime use rates were 5.5% for ecstasy, 12.0% for hallucinogens, 1.9% for speed/methamphetaime/crystal meth and 2.1% for salvia (Ontario sub-sample n=1,451 in 2015).80

Youth and Young Adults

  • Among Ontario high school students (grades 9-12; n=10,426), 1.1% used methamphetamine/crystal methamphetamine (past-year) in 2015. 5.4% used ecstasy (an increase from 3.3% in 2013) with highest use (9.6%) among grade 12 students. 3.2% used hallucinogens (mushrooms or mescaline), 1.6% salvia (grades 7-12), 1.5% LSD, and <1% bath salts (mephedrone) (2015 OSDUHS, n=10,426).3
  • Reported lifetime use rates were: 1.1% for methamphetamines (0.1% past-month), 6.4% for ecstasy (1.4% past-month), and 4.7% for hallucinogens (0.5% past-month), according to the Ontario sub-sample (n=16,123) in the 2013 NCHA Canadian survey of postsecondary students.6

Special Populations

Indigenous Populations

  • 1.0% of First Nations adults (aged 18+) reported amphetamine-type stimulant (crystal methamphetamine, speed, ecstasy) use in the past year and 3.1% reported hallucinogen use, according to the 2008-10 Regional Health Survey (n=1,500) representative of Ontario First Nations adults living on reserve.9

Racialized Populations

  • 19% of a sample of Toronto-based crystal meth users identified as an ethnicity other than white or First Nations among a convenience sample (n=32) in 2011.51

Homeless and Street-Involved Populations

  • Among homeless adults in Toronto, 5% reported non-cocaine stimulant use and 6% reported hallucinogen use (past two years) based on a stratified random sample (n=1,191) in 2004-05.12 In another survey of Toronto-based homeless adults, 4% used methamphetamines (speed, crystal meth, uppers), 4% used amphetamines, and 7% used hallucinogens regularly (+3 times/week) in the past year based on a random sample of n=368 (2006-07).11
  • Among 'street-entrenched' adults (aged 19+) who use drugs in Toronto, almost a quarter (24%) used methamphetamine (past-year), 31% used MDMA, 25% used mushrooms. Among 'street-involved' youth (aged 15-24) with drug use in Toronto, 40% reported crystal methamphetamine use, 61% ecstasy use, and 24% ketamine use (past-year) (2012-13 Health Canada High Risk Populations study).13
  • 47% of a sample of Toronto-based young, homeless, substance-using males and 38% of females reported methamphetamine use (past 6 month), the majority (52%) used it at least weekly. 69% of males and 63% of females reported ecstasy use (past 6 month) among a convenience sample (n=100; aged 16-24) in the Drugs, Homelessness and Health survey (2008-09).14

Correctional Populations

  • Methamphetamine use (in the year prior to incarceration) was reported by 6.0% of a sample of the Ontario correctional population according to a representative sample of (n=499) male adults (aged 18+) in an Ontario provincial detention centre in 2009.44

Pregnant and Parenting Women

  • There is no publicly-available provincial data on women’s stimulant use during pregnancy.

People Living with HIV

  • Nearly one in ten (9.4%) of a sample of HIV-positive men who have sex with men reported (past 6-month) methamphetamine use and 10.9% reported using club drugs (Ecstasy/MDMA, ketamine, GHB [4-hydroxybutanoic acid], PCP [phencyclidine] and poppers [amyl nitrite]) based on a sample (n=1,997) recruited from HIV clinics across Ontario (2010-13; Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study).81

Recreational Drug Users

  • The majority (84.4%) of a sample of Toronto-based crystal meth users had used ecstasy, ketamine or other club drugs (past-year) among a convenience sample (n=32) in 2011.51
  • Almost a quarter (24.3%) of a sample of gay and bisexual men who used drugs and attended gay dance clubs in Toronto reported crystal methamphetamine use ("from time to time"), 82.4% ecstasy, 54.1% ketamine, and 36.5% GHB, among a convenience sample (n=74) in 2003.83

4.2 Risks and Harms

Pipe sharing

  • Almost all (94%) of a sub-sample of (n=51) homeless youth (aged 16-24) in Toronto reporting methamphetamine use (past 6 months) did so by smoking it in a pipe. Of those, 81% used a shared pipe, according to a convenience sample in the Drugs, Homelessness and Health survey (2008-09).14

Other Stimulants and Hallucinogens and Driving

Morbidity and Mortality

Overdose

  • Hospital separations related to amphetamines in Ontario increased from ~2 to ~4 per 100,000 population between 2000 and 2005, based on administrative health records (Canadian Institute for Health Information's Hospital Morbidity Database).24

4.3 Interventions

Treatment

  • 2.6% (2,648 admissions) of Ontario patients admitted to publicly-funded substance abuse treatment reported amphetamines and other stimulants (excluding cocaine, crack-cocaine and methamphetamines) as a problem drug upon admission in 2012-13. 3.0% (3,016 admissions) reported methamphetamines as a problem drug upon admission, which was an increase of over 160% since 2007-08. 1.5% (1,499 admissions) reported ecstasy and 0.8% (837 admissions) reported hallucinogens as problem drugs (DATIS).25